Grin V. G.

Meninges of the Brain and Spinal Cord. Sources of Formation and Ways of Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

About the author:

Grin V. G.



Type of article:

Scentific article


Abstract. This topic is extremely important because of the epidemic of acute respiratory infections, progressive atherosclerosis, strokes, AIDS and other diseases which cause pathological changes in the human brain, meninges and cerebrospinal fluid. The spinal cord is surrounded by three meninges: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. The brain also has three meninges – dura, arachnoid and pia mater. Dura mater that covers the brain has next derivatives: sinuses, processes. Venous sinuses: superior sagittal sinus; inferior sagittal sinus; straight sinus; occipital sinus; transverse sinus; сavernous sinus; sigmoid sinus; supe-rior petrosal sinus; inferior petrosal sinus; confluence of sinuses. Processes: cerebral falx, which is located in the longitudinal cerebral fissure and divides the right and left hemi-spheres of the brain; falx cerebelli, which enters to posterior cerebellar notch and divides the right and left hemi-spheres of the cerebellum; cerebellar tentorium, which enters transverse fissure of cerebrum; diaphragma sel-lae, which roofs the hypophysial fossa, and separates hypophysis from diencephalon. This diaphragm has a hole through which passes a pituitary stalk, which is attached to hypophysis; trigeminal cave is formed by the splitting of cranial dura mater in area of trigeminal impression and is located on the front surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone, near the apex of petrous part. Openings in the subarachnoid space are called cisterns. There are the following cisterns: posterior cerebello-medullary cistern; cisterna magna; lateral cerebellomedullary cistern; chiasmatic cistern; interpeduncular cistern; cistern of lateral cerebral fossa; ambient cistern; pontocerebellar cistern; pericallosal cistern; quadrigeminal cis-tern; cistern of the great cerebral vein; cistern of lamina terminalis. Meninges performs a protective and barrier function, creating blood– cerebrospinal fluid, histo-cerebrospinal fluid and histohematogenous barriers. The main malformations of the brain include development defects of the ventricular system of the brain and the cerebral cortex, brain herniation, congenital cysts, hydrocephalus. Inflammation of meninges – meningitis most often has infectious and toxic etiology. There is leptomeningitis (arachnoiditis) – inflammation of the arachnoid and pia mater; pachymeningitis – inflammation of the dura mater of the brain. For further diagnosis of defects of the brain and ventricular system additional examination is needed, including craniography, cranial tomography, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head, pneumoencephalography, ventriculography, angiography, puncture of hernial protrusion. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, liquor) is a kind of biological fluid that is necessary for proper functioning of the brain tissue. In adults, the total number of CSF is 110-160 ml, and in children – 80-92 ml. The distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in liquor system is as follows: the lateral ventricles – 20-30 ml, III and IV ventricles – 3-5 ml, subarachnoid space of the brain – 20-30 ml, subarachnoid space of the spinal cord – 50-70 ml. Cerebrospinal fluid performs the following functions: protection – depreciation of shock and concussion; forma-tion of hydrostatic shell around the brain, its roots and blood vessels, reducing tension of roots and vessels; forma-tion of optimal liquid environment, which surrounds the structures of the central part of the nervous system, so that the constant ionic balance is maintained, which ensures normal functioning of neurons and glia; excretion of me-tabolites produced in the brain tissue; integrative – transfer of hormones and other biologically active substances.


brain, spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid.


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Publication of the article:

«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 2 part 3 (109), 2014 year, 71-75 pages, index UDK 611. 81/82