CHANGES OF ORAL MICROBIOME IN CHILDREN WITH FIXED ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES
About the author:
Melnyk V. S., Horzov L. F., Izay M. E.
Type of article:
The oral microbiome is the most studied in the human body. It counts more than 600 common taxonomies of microorganisms, at species level. Microbiological associations under certain conditions may be representatives of normal microbiome, and when changing these conditions cause the development of pathological process. The main role is not the generic composition, but the violation of the ratio of microorganisms, which is diagnostic. Catarrhal gingivitis is always associated with microorganisms in the oral cavity. This disease is difficult to treat, and the presence of a fixed orthodontic appliances further complicates the implementation of procedures for personal and professional hygiene that aimed at eliminating etiological factors. The purpose of the study is to investigate easily diagnosed changes in microbial associations that are important for the purpose of identifying early markers and for proper prevention and development of methodological approaches. The object and methods of research. A total of 62 children 12-15 years of age with fixed orthodontic appliances were examined. From the examined patients, two groups were formed: Group I – 32 children, patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis, which arose in the process of orthodontic treatment. Among them, 17 girls and 15 boys. Group II – control – 30 practically healthy children of the same age (15 girls and 15 boys). The material of the microbiological study was the washing of the oral cavity. Determination of the species composition of the oral microbial was performed at the beginning of the orthodontic treatment – 3 months, and at the control points – 6 months and 12 months after the fixation of the fixed orthodontic appliances. The seeding of mouthwashes were performed using chromogenic selective nutrient media for isolation and identification of major groups of known representatives of the oral microbial. Research results and their discussion. Prior to orthodontic treatment, the setting braces, signs of inflammation of periodontal tissue in these patients was not observed. At the beginning of orthodontic treatment in children with clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues, 32 strains of Streptococcus spp. were isolated, 26 of the Peptostreptococcus spp., 10 of the Enterobacteriaceae family, and 15 of Candida fungi were identified. Representatives of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity, Lactobacillus spp., were isolated in 11 individuals. At the second stage, orthodontic treatment of bacteria of the genera Streptococcus and Peptostreptococcus was isolated in 32 patients. The frequency of bacteria Lactobacillus spp. increased by 15% and isolated from 16 people, and the bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family decreased by 19%. In patients, in the second stage of orthodontic treatment, the fungi of the genus Candida were determined in 19 subjects in comparison with the first stage. In the third stage of orthodontic treatment, the rates of microorganisms isolated from oral fluids, in particular Streptococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. has not changed. The incidence of bacterial Enterobacteriaceae (34.2%) increased by 20%, while the Candida genus fungi decreased from 49.3% to 32.3%. Identification frequency of Lactobacillus spp. amounted to 52.5%. Conclusions. Streptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus are dominant in the oral cavity. In children with fixed orthodontic appliances in the oral liquid identified microorganisms that are not characteristic of the normal microbiome of oral cavity, observed an increase of periodontal pathogenic microorganisms belonging to Veillonella, Neisseria, Actinobacillus, Candida and Enterobacteriaceae, which, under favorable conditions, may cause and intensify inflammation in periodontal tissues.
oral microbiome, fixed orthodontic appliances, children, gingivitis
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 1 Part 1 (148), 2019 year, 343-347 pages, index UDK 616.31-053.2+616-089.23:57.083.1