ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF LYMPHOCYTIC SYSTEM IN PERSONS WITH MEDIUM AND HIGH DEGREE OF MYOPIA
About the author:
Kolesnyk Y. I.
Type of article:
As is known lymphocytes are fundamental importance type of blood cells because they determine the specificity of the immune response to infectious microorganisms and other foreign antigens. Reduced lymphocyte counts (lymphopenia) or changes in the ratio of its cell subpopulations may be indicative of many disorders or immunodeficiency, reducing the protective properties of the body. Myopia is the most common cause for impaired vision in the world with an increasing global prevalence. Having a tendency to progression, myopia of high values increases the risk of serious diseases. Many studies have shown the role of immune disorders in the pathogenesis of myopia, for example, it is clear that T-lymphopenia, reduced T-helper activity, disimmunobulinemia are formed against the background of myopia. However, most studies either concern school age or are not performed systematically. So, the purpose of our study was the analysis of quantity of lymphocytes (basic populations and its subpopulations) in peripheral blood people aged 18-35 years with medium and high degree of acquired myopia. Methods and materials. Immunological parameters at people with myopia (30 people each with medium and high acquired myopia) and 60 healthy people with normal vision of 18-35 years are investigated. Diagnosis of myopia was verified in accordance with accepted medical criteria. The absolute amount of the leukocytes and the quantity of lymphocytes were determined in the blood smears painted by the Romanowsky-Giemsa method and counted with the help of the Goriaev chamber; level of T-lymphocytes (CD3), its subpopulation (CD4, CD8) and B-lymphocytes (CD22) – by methods of immunofluorescence with using a set of monoclonal antibodies to markers of cell differentiation. Derivative indices (CD4/CD8, leuko-T-lymphocytic, leuko-B-lymphocytic) were also calculated. Statistical processing was performed using packages of applied programs «Microsoft Excel». Results and their discussion. The obtained results indicate the reduction number of leucocytes and lymphocytes in experimental group compared with healthy people. The absolute number and relative count of T-lymphocytes (CD3) were also reduced in myopes (by 26,5% and 15,6%; 28,7% and 14%, respectively medium and high degree). We established that quantity of T-helpers (CD4) in persons with myopia tended to decrease, and quantity of T-surpressers/cytotoxic (CD8) – to increase (absolute number by 25% and 3%, relative – by 23,8% and 20%, respectively medium and high degree). That is why the immunoregulatory index in myopes was lower than in control group (by 1,6 and 1,5 times, respectively medium and high degree). The absolute and relative number of B-lymphocytes (CD22) was higher than the control indicators (by 20,6% and 30,7%; 23,57% and 47,3%, respectively medium and high degree), that caused their higher immunoglobulin production activity. Generally, identified deviations of the lymphocytic counts interrelated with the degree of myopia, and the severity of immunological changes worsens with increasing values of myopia. Conclusions. It has been established that myopes have the dysfunctions of the cellular immunity (T-lymphopenia with T-helpers suppression), which are mediated by changes in the quantity and proportions of lymphocyte cell populations. Prospects for further research. In further research we will be continue studying of immune status of people with acquired myopia different degree.
acquired myopia, cellular immunity, T-lymphocytes, secondary immunodeficiency
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 1 Part 1 (148), 2019 year, 383-386 pages, index UDK 612.017.1