THE EARLY DIAGNOSTIC AND PHYSICAL THERAPY OF MOVEMENTS DISORDERS PROBLEMS IN ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS WITH BRAIN INJURIES
About the author:
Sekretnyi V. А., Nekhanevych О. B.
Type of article:
Objective. Ice hockey is a fast-moving sport with a high risk of collision. Concussion – a pathophysiological cascade, which occurs as a result of traumatic effects on brain tissue resulting from the movement of a head during a stroke. Methods. Assessment of world experience in the development of a program for diagnostics and early rehabilitation of motor disorders in hockey players. We performed analysis of literary sources in modern databases: the abstract database “Ukrainka Science”, Google Scholar, RINC, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The search depth is 12 years (from January 2007 to April 2019). Results. The National Hockey League (NHL) and other leagues have their own protocols for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of concussion. More than half of all NHL players were out of at least 1 game per season in the result of a concussion of GM. The Injury report form, according to which 10% of all injuries were found to be brain shaking – enlisted 160 cases per 3293 games. The most common reason for GM shakes was contact with another player (89% of cases). Epidemiological data from American scientists indicate that athletes-women may have a greater risk of concussion than male players. According to Praveen Satarasinghe et al. the main pathophysiological mechanism of change during concussion is tauopathy (50%). An important factor that forces scientists to evaluate and control concussions is that a significant proportion of “mild” injuries often remains undiagnosed, or players continue to play due to pressure from the coach, teammates, fans or relatives. Neurodegenerative conditions may be associated with a repeating concussion of brain, with 1 recurring concussion after a short recovery may be the cause of chronic post-traumatic encephalopathy (CPTe). CPTe, as the main remote complication, is an important topic for many studies. An important topic of the research is prediction of concussion based on the sustained injury. Neuropathological data suggest that injuries, triggered by “preconconcussion” can cause persistent cognitive changes to various neurocognitive functions such as attention, memory, and organizational function, which can persist for a long time after the concussion, even after the end of a sports career. The importance of EEG is described by Adam W. Kiefer et al. Based on the clinical case with the concussion of a young athlete, they show changes in EEG in a long-term period that is dissonant with normal neurological status. An important topic for the study of concussions is the study of biomarkers that may appear in the organism after concussion. One of the most common of these are SNTF, a biomarker of diffuse axonal damage that accumulates in axons after an injury and increases in blood after a slight injury of brain due to concussion (mTBI) in accordance with white matter abnormalities and persistent cognitive dysfunction. An important topic for the research is the study of cognitive functions – immediate evaluation after concussion and cognitive testing (ImPACT). Conclusion. To date, scientists have not developed a single diagnostic algorithm that needs to be conducted in order to determine an athlete’s condition and control criteria for the rehabilitation program. Scientists still have to answer these questions. The main diagnostic ways are investigation of cognitive impairments, encephalography and biochemical blood biomarkers of brain injuries. Their implementation into practice will decrease negative results of sports related brain injuries.
ice hockey, brain concussion, movement disorders, cognitive impairment, diagnostic, physical therapy
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 2 Part 1 (150), 2019 year, 59-64 pages, index UDK 61:615.81-84:616-009.1-18:616.8-085.82-84:616.831.001.31-34