MODERN VIEW ON THE VENOUS SYSTEM OF THE HEART MORPHOLOGY AND METHODS OF ITS INVESTIGATION
About the author:
Bilash S. M., Pronina O. M., Liulka Ye. M.
Type of article:
In this study a generalization of preliminary data of the venous system of the heart morphology, namely, the coronary venous sinus and its inflows in normal and in some cardiac pathologies is presented. Also modern methods for these structures investigation are considered. The morphometric characteristics of the coronary venous sinus of the heart are quite variable, but researchers have established certain patterns in their age, sex and anthropometric aspects. There are still differences of opinion about the structure of the coronary venous sinus wall and the variety of its shapes. Special attention is paid to changes in the venous system of the heart during the progression of heart failure – a condition that at the present stage of the medicine development requires the implantation of three-chamber cardiac resynchronizing pacemakers, a prerequisite for which is the catheterization of certain inflows of the coronary venous sinus to establish safe stimulation of the left ventricle. The advantages and disadvantages of such methods of the macroscopic structure of the venous system of the heart investigation as sectional and angiographic, including using multidetector computed tomography are considered in detail. It was established, that mostly researches used sectional method of investigation due to its simplicity, low cost and availability. However, measurements of the size of structures on cadaveric hearts are associated with a large number of inaccuracies due to the lack of conformity of the shape and position of these structures with those of living people. So currently more attention is being paid to intravital imaging techniques. Among them, there are venous angiography and multidetector computed tomography. The latter has an advantage because it allows to obtain a three-dimensional model of the coronary venous sinus, that gives us ability to evaluate its shape more accurately and to perform proper measurements. Attention is focused on the need for a more detailed investigation of the dependence of the venous system of the heart morphology depending on age, gender and somatotypological features of the human body structure, the size of certain cardiac cavities using modern imaging methods, which makes this study relevant and up to date.
coronary venous sinus, morphology, angiography, computed tomography.
- Yen Ho S, Sanchez-Quintana D, Becker AE. A review of the coronary venous system: A road less travelled. Heart Rhythm. 2004;1:107-12.
- von Ludinghausen M. The venous drainage of the human myocardium. Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 2003;168:1-104.
- Prives MG, Lysenkov NK, Bushkovich VI. Anatomiia cheloveka. 12-е izd. SPB.: Izd. dom SPbMAPO; 2004. 720 s. [in Russian].
- Mitrofanova LB, Ivanov VA, Kosourov AK. Anatomicheskoe i gistologicheskoe issledovanie koronarnogo sinusa u kardiologicheskikh bolnykh, lits bez serdechnoi patologii i zdorovykh. Vestnik aritmologii. 2003;33:44-51. [in Russian].
- Nemirova SV, Kosonogov AY, Shakhov YB, Nikolskii AV, Kosonogov KA, Zheleznov AB, i dr. Varianty stroeniia koronarnogo sinusa serdtsa. Meditsinskii almanakh. 2016 Sent;4(44):79-83. [in Russian].
- Zawadzki M, Pietrasik A, Pietrasik K, Marchel M, Ciszek B. Endoscopic study of the morphology of Vieussens valve. Clin Anat. 2004;17:318-21.
- Noheria A, Desimone C, Lachman N, Edwards W, Gami A, Maleszewski J, et al. Anatomy of the Coronary Sinus and Epicardial Coronary Venous System in 620 Hearts: An Electrophysiology Perspective. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol [Internet]. 2012 Aug 10 [cited 2013 Jan];24:1-6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8167.2012.02443.x
- Hill AJ, Ahlberg SE, Wilkoff BL, Iaizzo PA. Dynamic obstruction to coronary sinus access. The Thebesian valve. Heart Rhythm. 2006;3:1240-1.
- Mak GS, Hill AJ, Moisiuc F, Krishnan SC. Variations in Thebesian valve anatomy and coronary sinus ostum: Implications for invasive electrophysiology procedures. Europace. 2009;11:1136-7.
- Belianin VV. Klinicheskaia anatomiia venechnogo sinusa serdtsa [dissertatsiia]. Orenburg: Orenborgskaia gos med akad; 2011. 150 s. [in Russian].
- Kuznetsov VA. Serdechnaia resinkhroniziruiuschaia terapiia: izbrannye voprosy. M.: Izd-vo Poligraf komp “Abis”; 2007. 128 s. [in Russian].
- Tori G. Radiological visualization of the coronary sinus and coronary veins. Acta Radiol. 1951;36:405-10.
- Gilard M, Mansourati J, Etienne Y, Larlet JM, Truong B, Boschat J, et al. Angiographic anatomy of the coronary sinus and its tributaries. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998;21:2280-4.
- Meisel E, Pfeiffer D, Engelmann L, Tebbenjohanns J, Schubert B, Hahn S, et al. Investigation of coronary venous anatomy by retrograde venography in patients with malignant ventricular tachycardia. Circulation. 2001;104:442-7.
- Tada H, Kurosaki K, Naito S, Koyama K, Itoi K, Ito S, et al. Three-dimensional visualization of the coronary venous system using multidetector row computed tomography. Circ J. 2005;69:165-70.
- Jongbloed MR, Lamb HJ, Bax JJ, Schuijf JD, de Roos A, van der Wall EE, et al. Noninvasive visualization of the cardiac venous system using multislice computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:749-53.
- Christiaens L, Ardilouze P, Ragot S, Mergy J, Allal J. Prospective evaluation of the anatomy of the coronary venous system using multidetector row computed tomography. Int J Cardiol. 2008;126:204-8.
- Yamada M, Jinzaki M, Kuribayashi S, Sato K, Tanami Y, Fukumoto K, et al. Novel post-processing image for the visualization of the coronary sinus by multidetector-row computed tomography before cardiac resynchronization therapy: Edge-enhanced image. Circ J. 2008;72:487-8.
- Mlynarski R, Mlynarska A, Sosnowski M. Anatomical variants of coronary venous system on cardiac computed tomography. Circ J. 2011;75:613-8.
- Akaemova ON, Kots YI, Zheleznov LM, Sinitsyn VE. Kliniko-morfologicheskoe sostoianie venechnogo sinusa pri khronicheskoi serdechnoi nedostatochnosti. Vestnik aritmologii. 2009;54:20-4. [in Russian].
- Bales GS. Great cardiac vein variations. Clin Anat. 2004;17:436-43.
Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 3 (152), 2019 year, 16-19 pages, index UDK 611.142:611.068:616.142:616.125.4