MOLECULAR FEATURES OF LUNG CANCERS AND MODERN CONCEPTS OF THEIR MOLECULOBIOLOGICAL TESTING
About the author:
Yakovtsova I., Yanchevskiy O., Chertenko T., Dolgaia O., Oliynyk A.
Type of article:
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide in adults. It is divided into two big histological groups: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC). The updated 2015 WHO classification of lung tumors focuses on molecular profiles of different types of lung cancers and usage of this data not only for differential diagnosis, but also for molecular-targeted therapy. Nowadays, the main goal for pathologists is the good understanding of molecular and genetic features of all histological types of lung cancers. Moreover, they should navigate freely through the wide spectrum of diagnostic methods, those give a possibility to find these molecular and genetic features. The aim of our study to analyze the modern concepts about molecular features of lung cancers and their influence on the moleculobiological testing of this group of tumors. Object and methods. The information was collected from different scientific databases such as: Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Medscape. Bibliosemantic method and content analysis were used for information searching. The points of our interest were data about molecular features of different types of lung tumors and novel data about methods of molecular and biological diagnostics of these tumors, such as molecular testing, immunohistochemical analysis and liquid biopsy. Results. In our study we described 18 significant mutations for lung adenocarcinomas, 11 significant mutations for squamous cell carcinomas and some molecular pathways that are able to play an important role in tumor growth of SCLC and development of chemoresistance. In this article we also describe all methods of liquid biopsy that can be used in diagnostic and prognostic schemes for lung cancers. These methods include not only finding the circulating tumor cells, but also detection such tumor components as circulating tumor DNA, microRNA in exosomes and usage of platelets as the source of tumor-RNA. Conclusion. The modern pathomorphological examination of lung cancers are not able without evaluation of their molecular features, because it is an important part not only for the accurate histological diagnosis, but also for the choice of correct treatment. The modern pathomorphological methods include molecular testing, immunohistochemical analysis and liquid biopsy. The most prominent breakthrough was made in the field of NSCLC. Due to novel molecular data testing for EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement is recommended in lung tumors classified as adenocarcinoma and in cases where an adenocarcinoma component cannot be excluded. The key molecular targets for SCLC, the influence on that would allow to treat this type of tumor effectively, still are not found.
non-small cell lung carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, molecular features, immunohistochemical testing, liquid biopsy
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 3 (152), 2019 year, 41-45 pages, index UDK 616.24-006.6-091.8+577.21