THE LACTOBACILLI IN THE MICROBIOTA OF THE UROGENITAL TRACT OF WOMEN WITH HEALTHY LIFESTYLE AND AMONG SMOKERS
About the author:
Starishko O. M., Voronkova O. S.
CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
Type of article:
In recent years, there has been an increase in the dysbiotic manifestations of the urogenital tract in women. Changes in the ecological state of the environment, poor nutrition, acute intestinal infections, chronic diseases and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, widespread use of antibiotics, reduction of immunological reactivity of the body, long-term use of oral contraceptives, disturbance of hormonal status during menopausa can cause the disorders among representatives of resident microflora and the provoke the vaginal dysbiosis. The influence of these factors on a woman’s body contributes to the imbalance between normobiota, opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria. Lactobacilli are one of the most important microorganisms in the reproductive tract’s microbiota to maintain a woman’s health. The aim of the research was to investigate the frequency of violations of the quantity of the content of lactobacilli in the microbiota of the urogenital tract of women of reproductive age of the Dnipropetrovsk region in smoking compared with non-smokers. In order to perform a comparative analysis of the composition of the microbiota of the urogenital tract of women leading a healthy lifestyle or smoking, the results of studies of the composition of the vaginal microorganisms of 600 women of different ages, who were examined by a doctor, for the period 2015-2018. All patients were divided into 4 age groups with regard to smoking. The study of the composition of the microbiota of the urogenital tract was performed using the test system «Femoflor Screen» according to the manufacturer’s instructions using iCycler iQ ™ 5 in real time. Between 2015 and 2018, the incidence of low lactobacilli content biological material in 1st age group of women that are smokers tended to increase: in 2015 – 50%; in 2016 – 71.4%, in 2017 – 72.7%; in 2018 – 66.7%. In the 2nd age group the indicators were worse than the 1st group. Thus, in 2015, it was found that in 72.2% of women who smoke, the lactobacillus content of the urogenital tract microbiota was lower than normal; in 2016 – 68.8%, in 2017 – 87.5% and in 2018 – 80%. For women of the 3rd age group, the following tendency was determined: the lowest detection rate of low level of lactobacilli in biological material of women consuming tobacco products was 42.9% in 2016. In 2015, the figure was 68.8%, in 2017 and 2018, 78.6 and 83.3% of lactobacilli cases were reported to be below normal limits, respectively. A low lactobacilli level was detected for all women in the 4th age group, who consumed tobacco. The survey of non-smokers contingent showed that, from 2015 to 2018, the incidence of low lactobacilli level in biological material in individuals of age 1st group was lower than the same rate for the group of women that smoke tobacco. Thus, in 2015, the low content of Lactobacillus spp. was in 42.9% of persons, in 2016 – in 20.0%, in 2017 – in 26.3%, in 2018 – 73.7%. Among patients of the 2nd age group in 2015 the specific indicator was 37.8%, in 2016 – 6.4%, in 2017 – 35.8% and in 2018 – 59.7%. There is a different trend for women in the 3rd age group who do not smoke: in 2015 – 40.6%, in 2016 – 18.5%, in 2017 – 54.3%, in 2018 – 76,5%. In women of the 4th age group, who do not use tobacco products, in 60% of cases there was a decrease in the level of lactobacilli beyond normal limits. It was determined that the highest risk of lower lactobacilli reduction among all groups of women who use tobacco products are persons aged 26-35 years: at least 68.8% of cases of low lactobacilli detection annually in the period 2015-2018. Women aged 36-45 years were the most at risk of lower lactobacilli in the non-smoking group: the proportion of violations in the period 2015-2018 ranged from 18.5 to 76.5%.
lactobacilli, microbiota, genitourinary tract, test «Femoflor Screen»
- Andosova LD, Kontorshchikova KN, Kachalina OV, Belov AV, Gonova ES, Kudel’kina SIu. Harakteristika biotsenozov urogenitalnogo trakta u zhenschin. Klin Lab Diagn. 2013 Jan;1:51-3. [in Russiаn].
- Buchta V. Vaginal microbiome. Ceska Gynekol. Winter 2018;83(5):371-9.
- Kroon SJ, Ravel J, Huston WM. Cervicovaginal microbiota, women’s health, and reproductive outcomes. Fertil Steril. 2018 Aug;110(3):327-36.
- Schooley RT. The human microbiome: implications for health and disease, including HIV infection. Top Antivir Med. 2018 Sep;26(3):75-8.
- Amabebe E, Anumba DOC. Psychosocial Stress, Cortisol Levels, and Maintenance of Vaginal Health. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018 Sep 24;9:568.
- Campisciano G, Zanotta N, Licastro D, De Seta F, Comar M. In vivo microbiome and associated immune markers: New insights into the pathogenesis of vaginal dysbiosis. Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 2;8(1):2307.
- Vaneechoutte M. The human vaginal microbial community. Res Microbiol. 2017 Nov-Dec;168(9-10):811-25.
- Shipitsyna ЕV, Martikainen ZM, Vorobyova NЕ, Ermoshkina МS, Stepanova ОS, Donnikov АЕ, i dr. Primenenie testa Femoflor dlya otsenki mikrobiotsenoza vlagalischa. Zhurnal akusherstva i zhenskih bolezney. 2009;3:44-50. [in Russiаn].
- Voroshilina ES, Tumbinskaya LV, Donnikov AE, Plotko EE, Hayutin LV. Biotsenoz vlagalischa s tochki zreniya kolichestvennoy PTsR: izmeneniya i korrektsiya vo vremya beremennosti. Uralskiy meditsinskiy zhurnal. 2010;3(68):103-7. [in Russiаn].
- Domeika M, Litvinenko I, Smirnova T, Gaivaronskaya O, Savicheva A, Sokolovskiy E, et al. Laboratory diagnostics for non-viral sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia: current situation and hallmarks for improvements. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008 Sep;22(9):1094-100.
- Sklyar TV, Krysenko OV, Voronkova OS, Papiashvili MG, Vinnikov AI. Vyznachennya skladu mikroflory reproduktyvnogo traktu zhinok iz vykorystannyam test-systemy «Femoflor-17». Mikrobiol Z. 2015;77(5):87-94. [in Ukrainian].
- Fuochi V, Cardile V, Petronio Petronio G, Furneri PM. Biological properties and production of bacteriocins-like-inhibitory substances by Lactobacillus sp. strains from human vagina. J Appl Microbiol. 2019 May;126(5):1541-50.
- Valenti P, Rosa L, Capobianco D, Lepanto MS, Schiavi E, Cutone A, et al. Role of Lactobacilli and Lactoferrin in the Mucosal Cervicovaginal Defense. Front Immunol. 2018 Mar 1;9:376.
Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 3 (152), 2019 year, 191-195 pages, index UDK 579.2:579.61:616.6-07