TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPLEX DIPHTERIА VACCINE WITH BACTERIAL ADJUVANT
About the author:
Yeliseyeva I. V., Babich E. M., Zhdamarova L. A., Belozersky V. I., Kolpak S. A.
Type of article:
The lessons of the great diphtheria epidemic in Eastern Europe in the 1990s and the increasing trend of diphtheria in the world over the past few years have forced the medical community not to forget about the threat of a diphtheria outbreak. Sporadic cases of disease in Ukraine over the last 10 years are just the tip of the iceberg, as the transmission of infection through bacterial carriers and latent forms of diphtheria unrestrained continues. An analysis of the number of cases of diphtheria registered in Ukraine since the late 1980s and the corresponding rates of vaccination coverage against diphtheria reveals a paradoxical phenomenon: a significant increase in the incidence since 1990 was accompanied by an annual increase in the percentage of population coverage of DTP3. The maximum number of diphtheria cases in 1994-1996 was accompanied by the highest – almost 100 % – rates of vaccination. Thus, the epidemic has not been stopped by increasing the number of vaccinated persons. For a number of years, in our laboratory are conducted the research on the development of a complex diphtheria vaccine with a bacterial component. The vaccine has not only a protective effect against diphtheria disease, but is also directed against the colonization of the respiratory tract by the pathogen and the sanation of C. diphtheriae bacterial carriers. The development of bacterial adjuvant is carried out using ultrasonic disintegration of bacteria in line with two modern vaccine design strategies, namely: an anti-adhesive strategy that developes drugs that prevent colonization by the pathogen of the mucous membranes of the macroorganism and its subsequent invasion, as well as strategies for potentiation of the trained innate immunity, and to promote the elimination of the pathogen from the body in immunodeficiency states, which are associated with prolonged bacterial activity, and to enhance the immune protection of the body after vaccination. The development of bacterial adjuvant is in line with two modern vaccine design strategies, namely: (1) anti-adhesive strategy that implements drugs that prevent the pathogen colonization of the mucous membranes of the macroorganism and its subsequent invasion; (2) strategies for potentiation of trained innate immunity, which can protect against infection and promote the elimination of the pathogen in immunodeficiency states that are associated with prolonged bacterial activity, as well as the treatment of inverse immunotolerant states to enhance immune response. The experimental candidate vaccine has been preclinically tested in an enterprise setting. However, the study of the effect of experimental antigenic preparations on cellmediated immunity is being continued and the technological process of manufacturing the experimental candidate vaccine is being worked out. It was established that the tested samples of C. diphtheriae antigenic preparations increased the adhesiveness of the C. diphtheriae test strain at previous exposure with formalinized human red blood cells, and also demonstrated phagocytosis-stimulating effect (t> 2; p = 0.05). The decrease in the indeces of adhesion and phagocytosis of the test strain at pH=5.5, apparently indicates that even a weakly acidic environment damages the molecular structures – PAMS of erythrocytes and adhesines of corynebacteria, respectively – which partially lose their specificity and ability to stimulate mechanisms of innate immunity. The obtained data indicate the importance of determining the optimum pH value in the technological process of obtaining a bacterial antigenic preparation in the design of combined diphtheria vaccines.
diphtheria vaccine, bacterial adjuvant, adhesion, phagocytosis.
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 3 (152), 2019 year, 264-268 pages, index UDK 579.871.1 : 651.371-025