Fik V. B., Paltov E. V., Dmytriv H. M., Kryvko Yu. Ya.


About the author:

Fik V. B., Paltov E. V., Dmytriv H. M., Kryvko Yu. Ya.



Type of article:

Scentific article


Prolonged use of opioid agents can provoke significant pathological changes in various organs, especially in the tissues and organs of the oral cavity. This statement leads to a morphological study to study the submicroscopic organization in the structural components of the periodontium against the background of long-term opioid action. Methods. The study was conducted on 23 adult rats-males of the Wistar line, weighing 160-230 g, 4.5-6.5 months of age. Animals were injected daily with intramuscular injections of the opioid analgesic nalbuphine for 56 days. The initial dose was 0.212 mg/kg, and within 7 and 8 weeks the dose was increased to 0.260 mg/kg. For electron microscopic examination, fragments of periodontal soft tissue were used in the area of the gingival margin of the upper and lower jaws of the animals. Ultrastructural preparations were prepared according to the conventional method. Results. In the cytoplasm of cells of the epithelium of the free part of the gums, at the ultrastructural level, coarse tufts of tonofilaments are found, between which are located structurally swollen areas. Epitheliocyte nuclei pycnotic, with osmiophilic karyoplasm. In the cells of the epithelium of the gums, the structural components of the nuclei are disturbed, their shape, the cariole forming deep invaginations, and no nuclei. In the cytoplasm of cells of the basal layer, organelles, mitochondria with crystalline residues and vacuolation are damaged, tonophilaments are lysed. In cells of the epithelium of the attached part of the gums pycnotic nuclei are observed, which contain heterochromatin in the karyoplasm. In the cytoplasm there are necrotized unstructured regions, mitochondria with damaged folds. In fibrocytes, periodontal nuclei occupy most of the area of the cytoplasm, where there are almost no organelles, swollen, structureless intercellular matter, degranular tissue basophils and macrophages around the fibrocytes. Plasmolemma forms protrusion, primary lysosomes and phagosomes are present in the cytoplasm. Submicroscopic examination of the mucous membrane of the gums of animals revealed marked changes in the links of the hemomicrocirculatory bed, where blood capillaries with narrow lumps in the form of cracks without shaped elements of blood are noted. Also found blood filling of the lumen of the venules, which revealed erythrocytes and clusters of platelets. The cytoplasmic regions of the endothelial cells are compacted, with a small number of foamy cytoskeletons. The nuclear part of the cells protrudes into the lumen of the vessels, the uneven contours of the cariole. The basement membrane is fuzzy, and there are sclerotic changes in the perivascular spaces, reflecting the accumulation of collagen fibers in them. Conclusion. With the action of opioid analgesics inflammatory-destructive changes in the structural components of the periodontium dominate for eight weeks. Submicroscopically determined significant disturbances in the shape and structure of the cells of the epithelium of the gums, which are manifested by necrotizing areas, damage to organelles, impaired intercellular contacts in the cytoplasm of epitheliocytes, as well as the presence of pycnotic nuclei with a fuzzy contour of the cariole. In the swollen intercellular substance of the periodontal tissue basophils and macrophages are detected, ultrastructural organization of which indicates their active state. The plasmolemma forms numerous protrusions that are required for phagocytosis of damaged structures. Expressed changes in the links of the hemomicrocirculatory bed, which are manifested by the increase and decrease in the lumen of the hemocapillaries, the full blood of the venules reflect congestion, which significantly disrupts the gums.


opioid, periodontal, rats, ultrastructural study


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Publication of the article:

«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 3 (152), 2019 year, 311-314 pages, index UDK 611.311-018.73:615.214.24]:616-076.4