Slobodian O. M., Herasym L. М., Manchulenko М. М.


About the author:

Slobodian O. M., Herasym L. М., Manchulenko М. М.



Type of article:

Scentific article


Anatomical investigations of the vagus during the perinatal period enable to determine morphological aspects of individual changeability, which will form the basis for detection of different variants of structure and developmental defects during the postnatal period of ontogenesis. They can be applied during development of new surgical approaches and methods in neonates and infants. Objective of the study is detection of anatomical peculiarities of the cervical part of the vagus during fetal and early period of human ontogenesis. The study was conducted on 50 specimens of dead fetuses (from 4 to 10 months) and 9 neonates (5 isolated organ complexes in particular) by means of adequate anatomical methods: macro-dissection, making topographic-anatomical sections, morphometry, and statistical analysis. The data obtained were statistically processed by means of the licensed program RStudio. Topography of the vagus in the cervical region is found to be changeable during the perinatal period. The vagus adjoins the anterior-lateral surface of the internal carotid artery in the upper third of the neck. In the middle third it adjoins the lateral or anterior-lateral wall of the common carotid artery. In the lower third it adjoins the posterior-medial or lateral wall of the internal jugular vein. During the perinatal period the diameter of the right and left vagus is characterized by the two periods of accelerated development (from the 4th to the 6th month of the intrauterine development and from the 9th month to the neonatal period) and the period of relatively slow development (from the 6th to the 9th month of the intrauterine development). During the perinatal period the upper and lower branches of the superior laryngeal nerve and external carotid artery are the walls of the cervical triangle, which serves as an additional topographic sign during surgery performed on neonates and infants.


vagus, anatomy, morphometry, perinatal period.


  1. Akhtemiychuk YuT. Aktualʹnistʹ naukovykh doslidzhenʹ v haluzi perynatalʹnoyi anatomiyi. Neonatolohiya, khirurhiya ta perynatalʹnaya medytsyna. 2012;2(1):15-21. [in Ukrainian].
  2. Lekhan VM, Hinzburh VH. Perynatalʹna smertnistʹ v Ukrayini: dosyahnennya ta problemy Ukrayina. Zdorovya natsiyi. 2012;1:15-25. [in Ukrainian].
  3. Likhachev SA, Chernenko NI. Ul’trazvukovoye issledovaniye bluzhdayushchego nerva. Nevrologicheskiy zhurnal. 2010;15(2):35-9. [in Russiаn].
  4. Gang C, Hua Z, Xiangtian Z. Development of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus. Early human development. 2008;1(84):15-27.
  5. Giovagnorio F, Maftinoli C. Sonography of the cervical vagus nerve normal appearance and abnormal findings. Am J Roentgenol. 2001;176(3):745-9. DOI: 10.2214/ajr.176.3.1760745
  6. Haller JM, Iwanik M, Shen FH. Clinically Relevant Anatomy of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve. Spine. 2012;2(37):97-100.
  7. Sakamoto Y. Classification of pharyngeal muscles based on innervations from glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in human. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2009;10(31):755-61.
  8. Simon E, Mertens P, Sindou M. Anatomie fonctionnelle des nerfs glossopharyngien, vague, accessoire et hypoglosse Functional anatomy of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal cranial nerves. Neuro-chirurgie. 2009;2(55):132-5.
  9. Benouaich V, Porterie J, Bouali O. Anatomical basis of the risk of injury to the right laryngeal recurrent nerve during thoracic surgery. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2012;6(34):509-12.
  10. Dionigi G, Chiang FY, Rausei S. Surgical anatomy and neurophysiology of the vagus nerve (VN) for standardised intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) of the inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN) during thyroidectomy. Langenbeck’s archives of surgery. 2010;7(395):893-9.
  11. Naritomo M, Shogo H, Tetsuaki K. Fetal Anatomy of the Human Carotid Sheath and Structures In and Around It. The Anatomical record. 2010;3(293):438-45.
  12. Bilash SM, Pronina OM, Koptev MM. Comprehensive morphological studies as an intergal part of modern medical science. Literature review. Visnyk problem biolohiyi i medytsyny. 2019;2.2(151):20-3. DOI: 10.29254/2077-4214-2019-2-2-151-20-23

Publication of the article:

«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 4 Part 2 (154), 2019 year, 316-319 pages, index UDK 611.831.91.06-053.15/.31