Babak S. V.


About the author:

Babak S. V.



Type of article:

Scentific article


. Panic disorders are quite common among the world’s population. Symptoms of panic attacks occur unpredictably and spontaneously. Persons who are experiencing such attacks are in most cases unable to engage quickly and adequately in the current moment of life. This causes fear, increased anxiety, and even antisocial inclinations. Scientists are busy looking for solutions to panic attacks through an understanding of neurobiological changes in the brain. In particular, the electroencephalographic (EEG) method of research is used. The difficulty of studying the bioelectrical activity of the brain is that it is almost impossible to conduct such a study during a panic attack. All examinations of persons with panic disorders were conducted in the periods between attacks. There are only some data on the study of EEG in the laboratory, where certain stimuli caused emotions of fear, anxiety, and against this background, studied the electrical state of the brain. The researchers found differences in the electrical activity of the brain in patients with typical and atypical panic attacks: in typical panic attacks – an increase in the spectral power of beta-1-rhythm in the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes of the right hemisphere is registered, and in atypical – theta-rhythm power in the temporal areas of this hemisphere is registered. There is also an increase in the functional disintegration of interhemispheric asymmetry, which is due to increased activation of the hypothalamic-septo-hippocampal system. In the right hemisphere, mainly in the temporal and frontal leads, a significant decrease in the total absolute power density of the alpha rhythm, as well as an increase in the total absolute power density of the rhythms in the beta-1 range and theta range. During panic attacks, a person remains in a state of heightened arousal due to the dominance of the sympathetic nervous system, the activity of which gradually decreases. In this state, the excitement covers the amygdala, the brain stem. It is possible that the insular cortex may be directly related to the occurrence of panic disorders. To understand the peculiarities of changes in the functioning of the brain in panic disorders, the indicators of electroencephalographic studies should be supplemented by the results of other research methods. It is necessary to actively involve biochemical studies, magnetic resonance imaging data. In some people, panic disorders occur against the background of other psychopathy. Sometimes encephalography data are similar to a condition such as epilepsy. The use of single-photon emission computed tomography has shown changes in metabolism and a general decrease in bilateral cerebral blood flow in certain brain structures in patients with panic disorders. Biochemical studies, in the presence of panic disorders, focus mainly on glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyricergic systems, which have the functions of excitation and inhibition. Research shows a link between the state of the neurons in the respiratory center and the experience of panic. Analysis of the scientific literature on the bioelectrical activity of the brain in people with panic disorders has shown ambiguity that requires further research. Another very important reason for activating research on panic disorders in the last two years was the coronavirus pandemic.


panic disorders, electroencephalogram.


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Publication of the article:

«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 3 (161), 2021 year, 9-14 pages, index UDK 159.91:612.8:616-092