ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF CONSEQUENCES OF EXPOSURE FOR THE POPULATION OF THE ZAPORIZHZHYA REGION
About the author:
Kostenetsky M. I., Sevalnev A. I., Kutsak A. V.
HYGIENE AND ECOLOGY
Type of article:
The relevance of the research is determined by the fact that it is very important to have information about the dose load of the population at the expense of the main factors of exposure and to know about the negative consequences for health. In recent years, an assessment of the level of risk associated with the negative impact of the environment on public health has been actively used. The aim of the study. Assess the risk of negative consequences for the population of the Zaporizhzhya region from the main radiation factors of exposure. The object and methods of research. The object of the research is radiation exposure when using ionizing radiation sources. During the work analytical, statistical and calculated methods of research were used. Research results and their discussion. Based on the results of studies that were carried out earlier, the annual dose of irradiation of the population of the Zaporizhzhya region from the main sources of natural origin is 4.37 mSv, the largest contribution to this dose is made by radon-222 – 75.5%. The value of the individual annual effective dose of external exposure to the population was determined from the results of measurements of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation in the air in the open area at the control point of the settlement and in the living quarters of buildings. Calculation by the formula showed that the total dose of irradiation of the population of the region due to external exposure is 0.67 mSv per year, while irradiation in the premises is 0.49 mSv. The natural radiation background is formed by two components – cosmic radiation and radiation of natural radionuclides scattered in the earth’s crust, soil, air, water and other environmental objects, because the total dose of external radiation is added to the component of cosmic radiation, whose contribution to the effective dose of external exposure of the population is 0.3 mSv per year. The radiation dose received by the region’s population at the expense of radon-222 in indoor air is 3.3 mSv per year and due to natural sources in water it is 0.13 mSv per year. Medical exposure is in the second place after radon, concerning the exposure of the population. The analysis of dose loads of patients in the Zaporozhzhya region indicates that the average dose of population exposure due to X-ray diagnostic procedures is 0.9 mSv per person per year. On the territory of the region Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant is located – the largest nuclear power plant in Europe. Based on the results of radiation and hygienic monitoring, which is carried out to determine the effect of nuclear power plants on the radioactivity of the environment, it is known that the level of gamma-background in the territory of nuclear power plants is 8-10 mcR per hour, which does not exceed the average regional index of 15-20 mcR per hour, the content of 137Cs and 90Sr in basic foodstuffs and drinking water in the Kam’ians’ko-Dniprovsky district, which is located near nuclear power plants, is well below acceptable levels. The maximum individual effective dose of radiation from discharges and emissions of nuclear power plants within the sanitary protection zone (2.5 km) is approximately 0.018 mSv per year. The annual dose of irradiation of the population due to the food ration in the monitoring zone of the Zaporizhzhya NPP is 12.7 – 18.0 × 10-8 Sv per year. Thus, the total radiation dose of the population of Zaporizhzhya region from the main sources of radiation is about 5.0 mSv per year. The authors analyzed methodological approaches to the assessment of radiation risk and the optimization of radiation protection, which was elaborated in Publications 27, 37, 45 of the ICRP. In calculating the amount of risk, the risk factors cited in NRBU-97 and ICRP Publication 103, and the Radon Ratio of Publication 65 and Publication 115 of the ICRP were used. Certainly, the risk of irradiation, calculated by the coefficients of the latest ICRP Publications, is 34% higher than at the rates given in NRBU-97 and Publication 65 of the ICRP. Conclusions. It is established that, in comparison with WHO classification, the most of radiation exposure factors in the population of the Zaporizhzhya region create a low level of risk acceptable to the population. At the same time, due to the high doses received in the premises, radon creates an average level of risk that is unacceptable to the population, and requires further work to reduce radiation doses. At the same time, the risk of irradiation, calculated by the coefficients of the latest ICRP Publications, is 34% more than at the rates set forth in NRBU-97 and Publication 65 of the ICRP.
risk of irradiation, population, negative consequences
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 4 part 1 (146), 2018 year, 40-44 pages, index UDK 613.648:-02-07]-047.44 (477.64)