Physical Therapy: the History and Today
About the author:
Myronenko S. G.
Type of article:
Therapeutic physical training is used in medicine with curative and preventive purpose. This method has been arisen from two sources: the first source was sports movement and the second one was the experience in therapeutic exercises, accumulated during the preceding years of their application. The oldest manuscripts, considering the issues related to therapeutic effect of motions were found in China (3000-2000 B. C.). They told about application of breathing exercises, passive movements, exercises with support and message. Hatha yoga, being one of the oldest systems, which has a direct relation to the current physical cul-ture, originated in India. The period of Greek culture evolution is considered to be one of the stages of the develop-ment of therapeutic exercises. In ancient Greece, natural science and medicine, along with therapeutic exercises, was actively developed. Hippocrates’ (460-377 B. C.) famous formula «Primum non nocerae» (do no harm) put therapeutic exercises on the graduated application. In ancient Rome the experience of application of physical ex-ercises for the patients’ treatment was followed by Cornelius Celsus (І B. C.) and Galen (130-200 B. C.). In the East Avicenna (980-1037), the genius physician and scientist, deepened and expanded experience of the therapeutic and prophylactic application of movements. The era of the Renaissance is characterized by the development of biological sciences, descriptive and comparative anatomy, physiology and surgery. This contributed to the develop-ment of therapeutic exercises. In 60-80-ies of the XVIII century scientific thought and practical action of domestic scientists passed ahead of foreign ones in the field of therapeutic exercises, as evidenced by the fundamental report «About the importance of gymnastics in the human life», made by Professor Gubbenet Kh. ya., a follower of Pirogov M. I., at the festive gath-ering of the Kyiv University in 1854; a newspaper, published in 1865, devoted to the issues of therapeutic exercises; foundation of the first European medical exercises society in St. Petersburg in 1870 and the first continental clinics for treatment of wounded soldiers by therapeutic exercises in 1878. Studies of Piruskiy V. S. and physicians from 86 Вісник проблем біології і медицини – 2014 – Вип. 2, Том 3 (109) ЛЕКЦІЇ Kharkiv Medical-Mechanical Institute are of great importance in grounding of general ideas as for application of means and methods of physical training in medical rehabilitation. He was the first who developed the theory of mototherapy, including ergotherapy and tempering factors (the sun, air and water) and provided with the application methodology. This complex of medical treatment by physical means became the basis of a future system of medical rehabilitation. In the XX century analytical medicine was replaced by synthetic, integral one. Treatment of diseases gave way to treatment of patient (anthropotherapy). In 1921 Physical Training Research Institute was founded in Kharkiv for the first time in the Soviet Union. The main focus of the research was: the impact of physical exercise and recreation activity on the organism of people of different age. The theory of physiotherapy has been replenished by the studies of Professors V. М. Moshkov, S. М. Ivanov, V. ye. Vasilyeva, S. М. Popov, S. V. Khruschov (Moscow), D. А. Vinokurov, О. G. Dembo, V. К. Dobrovolskiy, V. P. Pravosudov (Leningrad), О. yu. Shterengerts (Odessa), V. М. Maksimova (Kharkiv), Т. О. Tretilova (Lviv), О. V. Kocharovska, V. Т. Stovbun, G. y. Krasnoselsiy (Kyiv). The latter founded postgraduate school in therapeutic physical training and medical supervision at Kyiv Medical Institute, trained many scientists in this field, the most prominent of them is Professor Muravov I. V., who is the founder of Kyiv Research Institute of Medical Problems in Physical Training and Professor Polesya G. V., the Honored High School Worker of Ukraine. Under her supervision nearly 30 PhDs in Therapeutic Physical Training have been trained at Kyiv Institute of Physical Training (nowadays renamed at National University of Physical Training and Sport). Currently in Ukraine the scientific research in the field of therapeutic physical training is being directed by the Problem Commission of Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine, Department of Physical Rehabilitation and Sport Medi-cine at National Medical University, named after O. O. Bogomolets, Department of Sport Medicine and Health Stud-ies at National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education (NMAPE), Department at Dnepropetrovsk National Medical Academy and Odessa National Medical University. Therapeutic physical training, as the treatment mode, is widely used in complex therapy of major diseases, as well as academic discipline, has rather developed theory. The facility for study is the network of equipped study-rooms for therapeutic physical training at multiple medioprophilactic institutions, employing skilled specialists.
history of therapeutic physical training, physical exercises, scientific research, development of therapeutic physical training in Ukraine
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 2 part 3 (109), 2014 year, 82-87 pages, index UDK 615. 825(092)