Research Perpectives of Prostate Gland’s Structure in a Zonal Concept
About the author:
Makar B. H.
Type of article:
Recently the precise tendency of prostate gland diseases is occurred in many countries. The most vulnerable part of these diseases is glandular parenchyma as a main substratum of oncological injury. Prostate gland is difficult and complex organ according to stereomorphology. On the one side it is connected with that a prostate gland contains some types of glandules, which are situated in histological zones. On the other hand it is difficult or impossible to determine lobes, lobules, sublobular units. According to the secretion special interest is caused by interrelation of “working” secretory microstructures of person’s prostate gland and elements of hemomicrocirculatory channel at normal organ’s functioning. Com-prehensive knowledge of normal morphology and organ’s functioning in involvement of pathological process is affected the quality of diagnostics. Glandular components of prostate gland are located in its volume irregularly. Sometimes they form accumulations, which contain separate individual glands that are located circularly toward to prostatic part of a urethra, whence there is a transurethral approach at different pathological processes during invasive surgical operations. The most significant contribution to the morphology study of prostate gland was done by J. E. McNeal with Stanford University cooperation. They presented a description of zonal anatomy, from the results of an investigation from gland’s sections in different planes. According to this concept there are some zones in a person’s prostate, which differ morphological, histological and morphometric features which contain their cellular elements. These are peripheral, central and transitional zones, and also anterior fibromuscular non glandular region. Central zone is conical part of glandular tissue, which contains approximately the fourth part from a total mass of glandular structures of an organ. Large polygonal glands are the part of this zone, which are surrounded by dense stroma. Central zone covers seminiferous ducts during their dimension. Ducts of central zone’s glands open into the urethra on the seminal colliculus in a close proximity from seminiferous ducts. Prostate gland’s cancer can be developed to 10% in this zone. Peripheral zone contains to 2/ 3 of total mass of all secretory epithelium of prostate gland, surrounding central zone posteriorly, laterally and inferiorly. Glandules of peripheral zone are less than central one. Excretory ducts of the peripheral zone glands are located within it from the capsule to the distal urethral segment. The ductules ap-proach them both anteriorly and posteriorly. The groups of ductules are located along the axial excretory duct from a urethra to the capsule. In its turn, smaller ductules give rise to groups of acini with a similiar density of their setup. Terminal sections and ducts of peripheral zone present a size of a highly magnified volume for the secret’s deposit-ing. All ductal-acinar system of glands is lined with cylindric secretory cells, which are identical as in the ducts so in the acini, except distal sections of the main excretory ducts near the urethra. This zone is a source of 65-70% of prostate gland’s cancer. Outwards from lower line of inner sphincter there is an area of sphenoid tissue, which is adjacent to the upper area of seminal tubercle and is called transitional zone. It contains 2-5% from mass of glandular tissue of prostate gland and is formed by two groups of paraurethral glands. Interrelation with sphincter stroma is unique feature of these glandular structures. 25% of prostate gland’s cancer is registered in this zone. It allows speaking about an ability to perform through researches at given direction the presence of common zonal concept in the structure of prostate gland and the absence of stereomorphological data about structure of glandular components in different zones and information, related to syntopy of glands with different elements of hemomicrocirculatory channel.
human’s prostate gland, zonal concept of structure, stereomorphology
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 2 part 3 (109), 2014 year, 88-90 pages, index UDK 611. 637