The Dynamics of the Functional Status of Professional Football Players within Different Training Periods
About the author:
Pavlichenko P. P.
Type of article:
Background. Searching for minimally invasive, minimally disturbing indicators of the training status in top-levels footballers has always been a matter of interest in sports medicine and physiology. Assessment of foot-ballers’ functional status is aimed at optimization of training loads and improvement of physical performance as well as at prevention of overloading processes and associated disturbances. Recently, assessment of T-wave terminal part variations, as detected by conventional electrocardiography, has been proposed as a simple tool to monitor the functional status, that is, the individual athlete’s response to the particular training load. Purpose. To assess changing of professional footballers’ functional status within different training periods and under the influence of playing advantages. Methods. We employed “Phazagraf” device for conducting our research. The method we used is based on eval-uation of the terminal part of ECG T-wave supplemented by measuring heart rate variability in order to assess the efforts of the vegetative nervous system and regulation systems of the body. The study involved thirty seven professional football players, aged 20-21, who had been candidates for the Ukrainian national under 21 football team. The study lasted for 6 months. The research conducted within different training periods as follows: So called, basic period after vacations lasted for 4-6 weeks. After a short-term, intensive tournament in the middle of the basic period which included 6 games. Pre-competitive period. The end of the competitive period. The investigation was carried out under standard conditions of basal metabolic rate (BMR). The main measur- ing indices included heart rate, T -index of symmetry of T-wave in standard ECG, effort index by Baevskiy, total event time of a 6-game tournament. There was also performed the comparison of variables in footballers of differ- ent playing specialization. Results. The findings show the increased basic rest heart rates after a rest period (4-6 weeks) as compared with rest heart rates within training periods as well as substantial variability of the effort index. It could be linked with car-diovascular and neurohumoral adaptation and economization of cardiac function after the period of regular training. The increase in T -index of T-wave symmetry was detected in some players at the end of the competitive period. These findings are evident enough to diagnose overloading and involvement of the functional status. Having appraised the changes of functional status after the short, intensive tournament in the middle of the basic period including 6 games, we found increased T -index and effort index by Baevskiy which were signifi-cantly correlated (P< 0,05). These changes are indicative of the affected functional status of football players after quite intensive game load (267 min for a player on average). Comparison of changes of functional status in footballers of different football specialization showed that de-fenders had more marked stability of regulatory systems after the vacation period, although they were more liable to overloading during the active competitive period. Mid-fields and forwards were found to have had higher increase in T -index and effort index by Baevskiy during the competition period and they were more predisposed to over-loading and regulation systems involvement. Conclusions. “Fazagraf” could be efficiently used for assessment of the functional status of professional footballers’. We can expect deeconomization of the cardiac function and neurohumoral disadaptation in footballers after a long rest period that could be normalized after renewing of training process. The considerable competitive load can result in overloading processes and regulatory systems involvement. Changes of functional status in players of different specialization within all training periods are not equal. Defenders and half-backs are more liable to overloading during the active competitive period.
functional status, regulation systems, electrocardiography, effort index, overloading
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 2 part 3 (109), 2014 year, 314-319 pages, index UDK 613. 72/731:616