Rieznichenko L. S., Dybkova S. M., Doroshenko A. M., Chekman I. S., Ulberg Z. R.

Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and their Biosafety Characterization

About the author:

Rieznichenko L. S., Dybkova S. M., Doroshenko A. M., Chekman I. S., Ulberg Z. R.



Type of article:

Scentific article


Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most wide­spread pathological states as well as social problems in the world. Pregnant women, children and elderly persons are particularly vulnerable. For the iron deficiency anemia’ prevention and treatment modern pharmaceutical market proposes considerable series of antianemic preparations, which differ in iron form and concentration characteristics as well as in presence of the additives. Unfortunately, in most cases all types of these preparations are possessed by some disadvantages and drug side effects among which low bioavailability, nausea, anorexia, metal taste in mouth, constipation, protracted course of therapy (2–3 months) for achievement of therapeutic efficiency are the most widespread. So, search and development of new class antianemic preparations for effective struggle with iron deficiency anemia is very actual problem today. Iron nanoparticles are possessed by high potential in this area according to the expressed biological activity of metal nanoparticles on the molecular level. Synthesis of iron nanoparticles, their physico­chemical characterization and estimation of the biosafety parameters was the main goal of this work. The original protocol for iron nanoparticles’ colloidal­chemical synthesis in water medium has been developed. The shape and size of synthesized iron nanoparticles has been defined by the method of transmission electron microscopy. It has been determined that synthesized nanoparticles have spherical form and average particles’ size 40 nm. Chemical composition’ X­ray microanalysis of the synthesized iron nanoparticles has been specified by the method of energy­ dispersive X­ray spectroscopy. 100 % of Fe content has been revealed in the nanoparticles. The presence of oxygen in the structure of the particles has not been fixed. This is an indication that the synthesized nanoparticles are particles of zero­valent iron (Fe0NP). Synthesized iron nanoparticles have been characterized according to the biosafety level using in vitro and in vivo tests. According to the Guidelines «Safety assessment of medical nanopreparations» parameters of cytotoxicity, genotox­ icity, mutagenicity, biochemical markers (ATP­ase and lactate dehydrogenase activities) and physiological marker «mi­ croflora state of the human gastrointestinal tract» have been used for biosafety level estimation in vitro. The synthesized Fe0NP have been characterized as biosafe and biocompatible: they were noncytotoxic, nongenotoxic, nonmutagenic and biosafe according to the used physiological and biochemical markers. The parameters of LD50 of the synthesized Fe NP for the intragastric as well as intravenous routes of administration NP intragastric administration was greater than 5000 mg/kg. LD50 intravenous administration was 220,3 ± 7,1 for both sexes of BALB/c mice. for the Fe0NP It was revealed that synthesized iron nanoparticles belong to IV toxicity class (low toxic substances) for intravenous and V toxicity class (practically non­toxic substances) for intragastric routes of administration according to the Hodge H. C. and Sterner L. H. toxicological classification.


iron nanoparticles, synthesis, physico­chemical characterization, biosafety, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, LD50.


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Publication of the article:

«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 3 part 2 (111), 2014 year, 319-323 pages, index UDK 615. 07