ORGANOGENESIS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE STOMACH AT AN EARLY PERIOD OF HUMAN ONTOGENESIS
About the author:
Antoniuk O. P., Tsyhykalo А. V.
Type of article:
The study of the peculiarities of anlage, development, topographic-anatomical changes of stomach during the prenatal period of human ontogenesis is an actual assignment of anatomy. Comprehensive knowledge of the specifics of stomach organogenesis and mutual structures, spatial and temporal changes of its syntopy will find out the reasons of anatomical variability, congenital malformations and acquired diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including atresia and stenosis, diaphragmatic hernia, heteroplasia of pancreatic tissue, focal aplasia of muscle layer of the stomach and so on. The aim of the study was to clarify the characteristics of anlage and chronological sequence of formation of structure and topography of stomach at an early period of human ontogenesis. The methods. The 25 series of histological specimens of embryos measuring 4,0 to 13,5 mm parietal-coccygeal length (PCL), 30 — the prefetuses measuring 14,0 to 80,0 мм PCL, human fetuses measuring 160,0 to 500,0 mm parieto-calcaneal length and 25 newborns studied using complex of morphological methods, which included antropometry, morphometry, microscopy, graphical and three-dimensional computer reconstruction, histotopohraphical plastination and statistical analysis. The results. It has been established that the formation of stomach starts at the beginning of the 4th week of development as a fusiform enlargement of distal foregut. On the 5th week of development rotation of the stomach rudiment to the left begins. The process of gut rotation resulting the change in the organ’s shape. At the 8th week of intrauterine development the pyloric part of the stomach moves to the right and up, and cardiac part of the organ moves left and slightly down. In the prefetal period of ontogenesis the locking device of stomach is formed due to syntopic influence of the diaphragm (esophageal-gastric junction), special spatial form of the pylorus and growth of sphincter muscle (gastro-duodenal junction). The multivariate regression analysis of correlation of age, gender and morphometry of stomach demonstrated that female age dynamics of skeletopy of pyloric part of the organ tends to asymmetry in relation to body type: a sharp reduction traced in 7-month-old fetuses with the lowest coefficients of constitution and 9-month-old fetuses with the largest coefficients of constitution. The periods of intensive raising of age-speciphic dynamics continues during the 8th month in fetuses whith the lowest coefficients of somatotype and during 9th and 10th month of prenatal life in fetuses with the largest coefficients of somatotype. Conclusions. In the prefetal period of ontogenesis the locking device of stomach is formed due to syntopic influence of the diaphragm (esophageal-gastric junction), special spatial form of the pylorus and growth of sphincteric muscle (gastro-duodenal junction). The periods of intense spatial changes of topography of gastroduodenal junction (7th, 9th and 10th months of prenatal development) can be considered as a time of appearance of anatomical variants of its structure and the feasibility of occurrence of congenital anomalies.
stomach, esophageal-gastric junction, gastroduodenal junction, prenatal period of ontogenesis, prenatal development, fetus
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 2 part 1 (128), 2016 year, 311-317 pages, index UDK 611.329.0139