Tsyhykalo O. V., Popova I. S.


About the author:

Tsyhykalo O. V., Popova I. S.



Type of article:

Scentific article


Studies on prenatal development of anatomical structures of neck in human fetuses play a fundamental role in morphological researches. Infrahyoid triangles in anterior region of the neck contains crucial structures for human body like trachea, thyroid gland, nerve plexuses and magistral blood vessels. Infrahyoid muscle flaps are often used for reconstructive surgeries that is why the topography of their innervation is important for successful dissection and implantation, together with minimization of postsurgical complications. That is why the aim of our study was to examine topographical peculiarities of the branches and position of ansa cervicalis in human prefetuses and fetuses that would provide clinical practitioners like pediatric and oncologic surgeons with additional anatomic data. We have studied 17 specimens of human prefetuses and fetuses (42,0- 310,0 mm) of the parieto-coccigeal length (PCL)) of the period from 10th week of human prenatal development (PND) until late 8th month of PND. The material was obtained from Chernivtsy Regional Pathologists Office on the terms of bilateral scientific cooperation with the Department of Histology, Cytology and Embryology of Higher State Educational Establishment of Ukraine “Bukovinian State Medical University”. The research was conducted in accordance with Helsinki Declaration on ethical principles on conducting scientific studies with human material (2008), ICH GCP (1996) and Orders from the Ministry of Health of Ukraine № 690 from 23.09.2009, № 616 from 03.08.2012. To visualize structures while conduction dissection of human prefetuses and fetuses, we have used classical methods of morphological investigation. Obtained results were analyzed with the help of computer statistical programs. In a result we have seen that ansa cervicalis is formed by the means of two twigs fusion: the superior and inferior ones (C2 and C3). The superior root was observed to have ascending topography next to the lateral portion of the internal jugular vein. The terminal twigs of the nerve trunk were found sterno-thyroid and sterno-hyoid muscles, that belong to the infrahyoid group. We have seen two types of superior root topography: medial and lateral subtypes. The inferior root has begun from the C2 and C3. The fusion between hypoglossal nerve and ansa cervicalis was observed to have classical curved shape both in fetal and prefetal stages of PND. It is important to mention that we have seen varieties way of nerve course: in medial position to the internal jugular vein the topography of anse cervicalis in total may change and to be formed between internal jugular vein and common carotid artery. Such peculiarities during reconstructive surgeries are important for successful outcome. In fetal and prefetal periods of human PND (42,0-310,0 mm of PCL) ansa cervicalis is formed by anastomosis of the superior and inferior roots that are merging with internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein. Investigations of topographical peculiarities of the roots in anse carvicalis are important for successful reconstruction surgeries in postnatal and adult age.


prenatal development, neck topography, infrahyoid region, ansa cervicalis in human fetuses


  1. Sizy MY, Makarov VV, Shevchenko OM, Lykhman VM. Rekonstruktyvno-plastychni operatsiyi pislya poranenʹ shyyi. Shpytalʹna khirurhiya. Zhurnal im. LYa Kovalʹchuka. 2019;3:62-7. [in Ukrainian].
  2. Babu BP. Variación de la Raíz Inferior del Asa Cervical. International Journal of Morphology. 2011;29(1):240-3.
  3. Jelev L. Some unusual types of formation of the ansa cervicalis in humans and proposal of a new morphological classification. Clinical Anatomy. 2013;26(8):961-5.
  4. Yalcin B, Develi S, Tubbs RS, Poyrazoglu Y. A detailed study of the relationship between the external laryngeal nerve and superior thyroid artery, including its branches. Clin. Anatomy. 2013;26(7):814-22.
  5. Bellier A, Cavalié G, Robert Y, Chaffanjon PC. Relationship between the ansa cervicalis and omohyoid muscle: clinical consequences in parathyroid surgery. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2014;36(7):621-6.
  6. Belle M, Godefroy D, Couly G, Malone SA, Collier F, Giacobini P, et al. Tridimensional visualization and analysis of early human development. Cell. 2017;169(1):161-73.

Publication of the article:

«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 1 (155), 2020 year, 313-316 pages, index UDK 611.93.013-053.13/.31