MODERN VIEWS ON THE FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY AND REPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF THE LIVER
About the author:
Mustafina Н. M., Starchenko I. I., Koka V. М., Lukachina Ye. I.
Type of article:
In the work, on the basis of an analysis of modern scientific literature, the presented data on the structure and functional features of the liver. Modern approaches to the study of this organ at the macroscopic and microscopic levels are described. The article focuses on the structural organization of the biliary system of the liver. Attention is focused on the features of the blood circulation of the liver, while it is noted that the liver takes part in the regulation of general blood flow, is a kind of “depot” of blood, which is important in the development of shock conditions of various etiologies. A histotopographic characteristic of the hepatic portal tract is given. Modern scientific data on the histological architecture of the liver parenchyma are described, ideas about the structural and functional units of the liver are given, and the main cells of the liver parenchyma, hepatocytes, are described in detail. Based on modern literature data, the structure of the hepatic sinusoids is described, attention is focused on the lack of a single point of view on the origin and function of the cellular elements located here, such as Kupffer cells and Ito cells. Considerable attention is paid to the reparative capabilities of the liver. It is known that the liver has a high regenerative ability, however, the mechanisms of this process for a long time remained insufficiently studied. In recent years, ideas about the mechanisms of regeneration of the hepatic parenchyma have changed significantly in connection with the discovery of a special variety of cells, which, on the basis of morphogenetic properties, can be attributed to stem cells. The population of cell elements described is made up of so-called oval cells, small hepatocytes, liver epithelial cells and mesenchym-like cells. Experimental studies conducted in vitro and in vivo suggest that in the presence of stimulating factors, such cellular elements can become sources of replenishment of the hepatocyte population. In recent years, ideas about the mechanisms of regeneration of the hepatic parenchyma have changed significantly in connection with the discovery of a special variety of cells, which, on the basis of morphogenetic properties, can be attributed to stem cells. The population of cell elements described is made up of so-called oval cells, small hepatocytes, liver epithelial cells and mesenchym-like cells. Experimental studies conducted in vitro and in vivo suggest that in the presence of stimulating factors, such cellular elements can become sources of replenishment of the hepatocyte population. At the same time, the issues of liver restoration at the organ level do remain open, since it is not currently possible to resume the original macrostructure of the liver after significant damage in humans. Thus, liver transplantation remains by far the most effective and radical method of treating patients with progressive hepatic insufficiency.
liver, reparative regeneration, hepatocyt, stem cells.
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 2 (156), 2020 year, 43-48 pages, index UDK 616.36-07