DETERMINATION OF HORMONES IN SALIVA
About the author:
Yevstihnieiev I. V.
Type of article:
The review contains indications for the determination of hormones in saliva, methods of research from tandem mass spectrometry with a matrix using nanoparticles and immunological analysis with luminescent signal recording to ELISA with special analyzers. The results of the use of various methods for the study of SG in endocrinology, sports medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology are presented. The analysis of saliva to determine the level of hormones can not replace blood and urine tests, however, having advantages and disadvantages, it significantly complements the information in certain clinical situations. It was emphasized that modern mass spectrometry in tandem with a high-resolution liquid chromatograph and a matrix with nanoparticles provides high performance, specificity and sensitivity. Not enough convincing results of total testosterone and estradiol in serum using automated systems contributed to the development of alternative technologies. Thus, an accessible method was developed for determining the free form of testosterone in saliva as the most adequate marker of androgenic status in both men and women. A method of ultrafiltration using Amicon Ultra-4 separation filters has been developed to determine the level of free testosterone in serum. However, the possibility of repeated and non-invasive analysis of saliva to evaluate free testosterone also has its advantages. The study of SG is convenient for screening to assess, for example, androgenic status in a certain age group. The lower limit of reference values can be used as a boundary criterion for the norm/ androgen deficiency, particularly in adolescents. The most accurate laboratory confirmation of androgen deficiency in men are quantitative indicators of free testosterone in saliva and in blood plasma (using the ultrafiltration method). Attention is focused on the need for doping control of growth hormone in athletes, given the use of it, primarily to increase muscle mass. The amount of growth hormone in the saliva is extremely small, the hormone level is determined in the blood plasma. On the other hand, saliva contains IGF-1, the level of which reflects the effect of GH on target organs. Determination of hormones in saliva is appropriate for the assessment of pathological and physiological processes. The study of saliva with the determination of the level of hormones allows you to safely collect samples without venipuncture, which can affect the level of SG, in particular, cortisol. However, some factors limit the widespread introduction of saliva research into health care practice. Doctors should be familiar with the reference values of the level of hormones in saliva, taking into account the type of stimulation, sex, age, test systems used. It is necessary to adhere to a single protocol when collecting saliva for hormones, the introduction of available information about the interpretation of the results. Saliva is a biological environment, the study of which is informative not only in the definition of SG, but also in monitoring the treatment of somatic pathology. Saliva as an object of study allows you to quickly and accurately test a variety of biomarkers. Saliva samples are convenient in determining sex hormones in controlling the menopausal cycle and treating hypercorticism. Thus, the definition of SG in saliva has opened up new possibilities in the diagnosis of subclinical forms of endocrine pathology, in the assessment of physiological functions in sports medicine.
saliva, steroid hormones, peptide hormones
- Manjul Tivary. Science behind human saliva. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2011;2(1):53-8.
- Motammad A Javaid, Ahad S Ahmed, Robert Durand, Simon D Tran. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases. J Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research. 2016;6(1):66-75.
- Zolotukhin S. Metabolic hormones in saliva: origins and functions. Oral Dis. 2013;19(3):219-29.
- Konishi S, O’Connor K. Salivary but not blood cortisol excretion is associated with metabolic biomarkers in healthy young women. Am J Hum Biol. 2016;28(4):539-44.
- Jian Liu, Xuemei Qiu, Daoming Wang, Yantao Li, Yang Zong, Yichen Liu, et al. Quantification of 10 steroid hormones in human saliva from Chinese adult volunteers. Journal of International Medical Research. 2018;46(4):1414-27.
- Gao W, Stalder T, Kirschbaum C. Quantitative analysis of estradiol and six other steroid hormones in human saliva using a high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Talanta. 2015;143:353-8.
- Gabriella Liorgulescu. Saliva between normal and pathological. Important factors in determining systemic and oral health. J Med Life. 2009;2(3):303-7.
- Khurshid Z, Zohaib S, Najeeb S, Zafar MS, Slowly PD, Almas K. Human Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics: an update. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(6):846.
- Crewther BT, Carruthers J, Killduff LP, Sanctuary CE, Cook CJ. Temporal association between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Biol Sport. 2016;33(3):215-21.
- Crewther BT, Cook CJ. Effects of different post-match recovery interventions on subsequent athlete hormonal state and game performance. Physiol Behav. 2012;106(4):471-5.
- Chichinadze K, Lazarashvili A, Chichinadze N, Gachechladze L. Testosterone dynamics during encounter: role of emotional factors. J Comp Physiol A. 2012;198(7):485-94.
- Cook CJ, Crewther BT, Kilduff LP. Are free testosterone and cortisol concentrations associated with training motivation in elite male athletes? Psychol. Sport Exerc. 2013;14(6):882-5.
- Van Anders SM, Goldey KL, Bell SM. Measurement of testosterone in human sexuality research: methodological considerations Behav. J Arch Sex. 2014;43(2):231-50.
- Toone RJ, Peacock OJ, Smith AA, Thompson B, Drawer S, Cook C, et al. Measurement of steroid hormones in saliva: effects of sample storage condition. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2013;73(8):615-21.
- Andreas Walther, Patricia Waldvogel, Emilou Noser, Jessica Ruppen, Ulrike Ehlert. Emotions and Steroid Secretion in Aging Men: a multi-study report. Front Psychol. 2017;8:17-22.
- Durdiakova J, Fabryova H, Kobarova J, Ostathikova D, Celec P. The effects of saliva collection, handling and storage on salivary testosterone measurement. Steroids. 2013;78(14):1325-31.
- John G Lewis. Steroid Analysis in Saliva: an overview. Clin Biochem Rev. 2006;M27(3):139-46.
- Ching-Hui Chen, Ming –Jong Bair, Chun-Wei Hsu, Cho-Chun Hu. Analysis of steroid hormones in human saliva by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Anal. Methods. 2015;7:486-9.
- Vavilova TP, Ianushevich ОО, Ostrovskaia IG. Sljuna. Analiticheskie vozmozhnosti i perspektivy. Binom; 2014. 312 s. [in Russian].
- Evstigneev IV. Opredelenie gormonov i antitel v sljune v klinicheskoj laboratornoj praktike. Clin. immunol. allergol. infectol. 2014;4:55-8. [in Russian].
- Gray PB, McHale TS, Carre JM. A review of human male field studies of hormones and behavioral reproductive effort. Horm Behav. 2017;91: 52-67.
- Higashi T. Salivary hormone measurement using LC/MS/MS: specific and patient-friendly tool for assessment of endocrine function. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:1401-8.
Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 4 Part 2 (147), 2018 year, 22-27 pages, index UDK 616-076: 612. 313:612.018:543.645.2