STUDY OF THE FREQUENCY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL BITE FORMS IN TEENAGERS AND REASONS OF PATHOLOGICAL BITE FORMS DEVELOPMENT, CONNECTED WITH THE MANDIBULAR GROWTH
About the author:
Chaykovska S. Yu., Pavliv Kh. I., Masna Z. Z., Adamovych O. O.
Type of article:
The variability of the face shape is caused by the individual morphological features of the maxillofacial area, the determining factors of their physiology are not only the aesthetic appearance of the face, but also the functional capacity of the dento-maxillofacial apparatus, in particular – to provide the functions of biting, chewing and phonetics which is possible only with the presence of physiological forms of the bite. The growth and development of the head throughout life are characterized by both an increase in size and a change in the shape and spatial relationships of its various sections. Many studies are devoted to the features of the structure of the maxillofacial area, depending on the constitutional type of structure of the skull. However, only a few studies are devoted to the relationship between the type of skull structure and the features of the mandible structure, which, from the early stages of prenatal development is formed in functional connection, but is morphologically separated from other structures of the facial head. Therefore, our aim was to study the frequency of occurrence of various forms of bite, associated with abnormalities in the growth and development of the mandible, in adolescents with different constitutional types of the structure of the skull. Object and methods of research. In the course of our work we examined and interviewed 600 teenagers with variable bite – students of Lviv schools (290 boys and 310 girls). The constitutional type of head was determined by the skull index. The type of bite was determined to all individuals, ascertained nasal or oral respiration, the condition of the cervical spine. The questionnaires indicated the presence or absence of chronic sinusitis, traumas of the maxillofacial area, surgery, hereditary factor regarding the growth and development of the mandible, the frequency of diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Results of the study and their discussion. During the examination it was found that different types of physiological bite (orthognathic, physiological forms of progeny and prognaty, direct bite, deep overlap) were found in 86% of the total number of all examined individuals, pathological types of bite (deep, open and cross bites, pathological forms of progeny and prognaty) – in 14% of adolescents living in Lviv. Pathological forms of bite associated with abnormalities in growth and development of the mandible were found in 7% of the total number of adolescents examined, which is also 50% of the number of persons with pathological forms of bite. It has been established that the presence of bite anomalies is independent from the patient’s gender, different types of anomalies occur with the same frequency in female and male individuals, but pathological forms of bite associated with the development of the mandible are most commonly found in dolichocephalus, and very rarely in the brachycephalus. Disorders of the maxillofacial area, in particular the lower jaw, are often combined with vertebral pathology of the cervical (16.7% prognaty, 22.2% progeny), as well as diseases of the upper respiratory tract and paranasal sinuses (44% prognaty). Among all persons with impaired development of the mandible, only 12.5% of prognaty and 55.6% of progeny are persons in whom this disorder is caused solely by a hereditary factor or injury. The results of the study show that the causes of disorders of growth and development of the mandible are numerous factors – heredity, injuries, disorders of the nasal breathing, condition of the cervical spine, etc., understanding the influence of which on the course of the development on the maxillofacial area will allow to carry out effective preventive measures and correct deviations in the early stages.
physiological bite, pathological bite, mandible, development, skull index.
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Publication of the article:
«Bulletin of problems biology and medicine» Issue 4 Part 2 (154), 2019 year, 329-333 pages, index UDK 611.716.4:616.314.22-007.26/.271]-053.7-071.3